INSPIRE PHC - Primary Health CAre Program:INnovations Strengthening PrImary Healthcare REsearch
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Sex and Gender Analysis Lead:


Dr. Susan Phillips Dr. Susan Phillips
Professor, Family Medicine, Queen's University, Physician, Queen's Family Health Team
Research Project Links

PC Reform
Optimizing quality, access, integration and equity in Ontario primary care

Care in the Home (TAPESTRY)
Primary health care linking with community (TAPESTRY-CM)

Community Linkage - SCOPE
Enhancing PHC linkages with home care and hospitals (SCOPE)

Specialist Linkage -eConsult
Creating new PHC linkages with specialists

Knowledge Translation Exchange (KTE)

Sex and Gender Analysis

Sex and Gender Based Analysis:



Sex and gender analyses in the proposed research includes specific activities that integrate sex and gender analyses into the research as well as a more general approach to the sex and gender considerations. Our work will align with the literature in defining sex as a biological characteristic and gender as a social construct such as the roles people take on.

The specific activities to integrate sex and gender-based analyses will be conducted by the Lead Role, Dr. Susan Phillips. She will engage in regular meetings with the Project Leads of each of the Projects to ensure that: sex and gender are considered in the design of the interventions; sex and gender variables are included in all data collections; sex and gender data analyses are appropriate; and findings are interpreted using a sex and gender lens. Furthermore, specific sex and gender analyses will be conducted by Dr. Phillips, in collaboration with the Project Leads, ensuring the appropriate approach for each Project's circumstance, sometimes using sex and gender as effect modifiers and at other times, confounding variables.

This program's general approach to sex and gender-based analyses, acknowledges that the study of how sex and gender affect health and access to care, is relatively new and findings are somewhat contradictory.

The analyses will consider whether sex and gender differences (in PHC use, other services received and outcomes) arise from inherent biological (sex) differences or from systemic inequities (based on gender roles) that may be amenable to change, recognizing that these two concepts are often intertwined and interactive. Because of these realities, meaningful sex and gender analyses must address complexities for which sex disaggregation of any data collected is necessary but not sufficient. We will assess how sex and gender affect and are affected by other determinants of health such as income, education, ethnicity, ability and how PC models of care advantage or disadvantage women or men. Specifically, this will include identifying available indicators that interact with sex to get at gender, such as individual and household income, employment status, relationships (family, community), education status, and ability to access care. Our approach will inform KTE initiatives aimed at ensuring sex and gender equity in PHC practice and policy.